The acronym for Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation is TENS. This is a pain relief method that involves a device that transmits electrical impulses via electrodes on the skin to a specific area of the body that is painful. It is useful for the relief of acute and chronic pain. Electric stimulation for pain management goes back to the Ancient Greeks and, more recently, Benjamin Franklin was a great proponent of the concept. However, the first patented modern machine made its debut during 1974 in the USA.
TENS has proved to be effective for many types of pain. It is commonly used during childbirth, after surgery, for bursitis, tension headaches, tendonitis, cancer, chronic wounds, arthritis, migraine headaches, injuries, and other painful conditions. Medical practitioners believe that the technique stimulates the body to produce endorphins which are natural painkillers. However, they do not claim that this therapy addresses the root cause of pain. Its primary use is to offer short-term relief while healing is occurring.
A TENS device enterprises of an electric unit that is connected to electrodes. These are attached to the skin near the targeted area. When the device is switched on, a low-voltage current is delivered into the body. During therapy, the patient will feel a warm, tingling sensation.
A session usually lasts between 5 and 15 minutes. Treatment may take place as often as necessary according to the severity of the pain. TENS can best be described as an electrical massage. It is widely used by physiotherapists, massage therapists, and chiropractors. Portable systems are available so that patients can apply the therapy at home.
In the USA, there are over 100 different types of portable TENS machines which have received approval from the Food and Drug Administration. However, the public may not use them unless authorized by a medical practitioner. Some units deliver the electrical impulses via acupuncture needles. This method has to be performed by a qualified health care practitioner.
Research indicates that TENS therapy has shown some efficiencies with cancer patients, especially those who have neuropathic pain which is related to nerve or tissue damage. In such cases, TENS works best when combined with medication. It has shown to be particularly helpful to relieve painful bones and muscles after major surgical procedures.
Patients who are allergic to adhesives may react adversely to the electrode pads. This therapy is not suitable for patients who have heart problems. Also, it should not be administrated to people with implanted defibrillators, pacemakers, infusion pumps, or any other internal device that may malfunction due to the electrical current. If a woman suspects she may be pregnant, she should advise the practitioner because the effects on an unborn fetus are not yet known.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation is otherwise considered to be safe. Anyone applying the treatment at home should take care that the current is not too intense because it may irritate or burn the skin. Never place the electrodes near the throat, brain, heart, or over the eyes. Always ensure that you know how to operate the device correctly and that you have received instruction from a professional practitioner.
Learning a language, especially Spanish can be one of the most rewarding experiences ever. I have put together a few tips on surviving the Spanish language course.First of all, if you have ever decided on learning Spanish or you think it’s time to knuckle down and finally learn Spanish, you are in luck because there has never been a better time to learn it. More and more countries are accepting Spanish on their school curriculum’s as there are more Spanish speakers venturing to other countries seeking out new lives. If you do not want to “miss the boat” as it were, now’s the time to study Spanish.
Below I’ve made some bullet points on learning Spanish effectively.
Why learn Spanish in the first place
First of all, before you begin your classes it would be a good idea to know your exact reasons for wanting to learn the language. Is it for work or play? In other words, do you need it in your job or is your learning Spanish more orientated to towards leisure or culture? So many people are finding better employment these days as a direct result of learning a language such as Spanish. The opportunities that exist are literally endless – translation, catering/restaurants, government and civil servant jobs to name but a few. I’m quite sure your boss will appreciate you that much more too, let alone your personal finances! Yes, having another language is a tool that helps you earn more money and that can’t be bad, can it? Also, your boss will be inclined to promote you as you will be an invaluable asset to his or any company.
If you have motives other than your job or career then I’m sure you’ll find learning Spanish a rewarding hobby. Just think about being able to converse with your new neighbors in Spanish! How welcome you’d make them feel by chatting to them in their native language. Imagine impressing your family and friends by ordering your next meal at a Mexican or Spanish restaurant in fluent Spanish.
Learning because of love
Maybe you’ve set your heart on learning the Spanish language because of love. Maybe you have met the girl or boy of your dreams and the language barrier has reared its ugly head. What a fine and noble opportunity to learn your future mate’s language and converse properly with them. One of the best methods to learn Spanish today is by using one of the very many online Spanish course methods. There are a few good ones on the internet today and they are all highly recommended for learning the language.
So whether it’s to improve your career, to enrich yourself culturally or even love then you could hardly go wrong in starting out on the right foot with an online Spanish course.
We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.
“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.
When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.
But what about that third kind of lightning?
I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.
Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.
And then it happened!
A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.
The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.
Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.
This time, I figured it out.
It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.
And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.
Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.
But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.
After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.
I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.
My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.
In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.
So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.
What a treat!
I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.